Endnotes

 

  1. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957), 5.
  2. Ibid., 27.
  3. Ibid., 26.
  4. Ibid., 27.
  5. Ibid., 79.
  6. Ibid., 78.
  7. Ibid., 66.
  8. "Dark Matter," Microsoft Encarta [encyclopedia on-line] (Seattle, WA: Microsoft Corp., 1997-2000, accessed Monday, November 20, 2000) available from http://encarta.msn.com.
  9. Jerome Burne, ed., Chronicle of the World (Paris: Jacques LeGrand S.A. International Publishing, 1989), 345.
  10. James Burke, The Day the Universe Changed (Boston & Toronto: Little, Brown and Company, 1985), 41.
  11. Ibid., 42.
  12. "In the Light of the Above," The Day the Universe Changed. Narr. James Burke. PBS. The Learning Channel, 1996.
  13. George Saliba, A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam (New York and London: New York University Press, 1994), 63.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Burne, Chronicle of the World, 429.
  17. Ibid., 436.
  18. Ibid., 433.
  19. Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought, 184.
  20. Burne, Chronicle of the World, 465.
  21. Hermann Kesten, Copernicus and His World, viii.
  22. Ibid., 12.
  23. Stephen Mizwa, Nicholas Copernicus 1543-1943 (New York: The Kosciuszko Foundation, 1943), 11.
  24. Kesten, Copernicus and His World, 12.
  25. Mizwa, Nicholas Copernicus 1543-1943, 17.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Kesten, Copernicus and His World, 164.
  28. Edward Rosen, trans., Three Copernican Treatises (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1959), 6
  29. Ibid., 13.
  30. Kesten, Copernicus and His World, 175.
  31. Ibid., 181.
  32. Ibid., 178.
  33. Ibid., 176.
  34. Ibid., 179.
  35. Ibid., 180.
  36. Ibid., 181.
  37. Ibid., 181.
  38. Ibid., 188.
  39. Jerzey Dobrezycki, ed., The Reception of Copernicus' Heliocentric Theory (Boston and Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company and the Ossolineum, the Polish Academy of Sciences Press, 1972), 91.
  40. Ibid., 79.
  41. Ibid., 192.
  42. Ibid., 193.
  43. Albert Van Helden, The Galileo Project; [database on-line] (Houston, TX: Rice University, 1995, accessed Thursday, November 16, 2000) available from http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/ People/tycho_brahe.html.
  44. J.L.E. Dreyer, Ph.D., Tycho Brahe: A Picture of Scientific Life and Wok in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963), 43.
  45. Ibid., 48.
  46. Van Helden, The Galileo Project.
  47. Dreyer, Tycho Brahe: A Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the Sixteenth Century, 178.
  48. Ibid., 175.
  49. Ibid., 181.
  50. Ibid., 86-87.
  51. Ibid., 328.
  52. Van Helden, The Galileo Project.
  53. Tycho Brahe, Description of His Instruments and Scientific Work as given in Astronomiae Instrautae Mechanica. Trans., Eds. Hans Ræder, Elis and Bengt Strömgren (Copenhagen: Bianco Lunos Bogtrykkeri, 1946), 8-9.
  54. Ibid., 168-169.
  55. Ibid., 331.
  56. Ibid., 332.
  57. J.F. Field., The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: Johannes Kepler; [online database] (Fife, Scotland: The University of St. Andrews, Scotland, School of Mathematics and Statistics, 1997, accessed Thursday, November 23, 2000) available from http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Kepler.html.
  58. Burne, Chronicle of the World, 572.
  59. Johannes Kepler, The Secret of The Universe Edward Rosen, Trans. A.M. Duncan. (New York: Abaris Books, 1981), 250.
  60. Ibid., 235.
  61. Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought, 209.
  62. Ibid., 210.
  63. Kepler, The Secret of the Universe, 17.
  64. Ibid., 18.
  65. Ibid., 22.
  66. Ibid., 21.
  67. Johannes Kepler, Somnium. Edward Rosen, Trans. (Madison, Milwaukee and London: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1967), xvii.
  68. Ibid., xix.
  69. Kepler, The Secret of the Universe, 22-23.
  70. Bruce Stephenson. Kepler's Physical Astronomy (New York, London, Paris, Berlin and Tokyo: Springer-Verlag. 1987), 21.
  71. Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought, 212.
  72. Stephenson, Kepler's Physical Astronomy, 1.
  73. Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought, 212.
  74. Ibid.
  75. Richard, S. Westfall. The Construction of Modern Science (Cambridge, New York and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1971),8.
  76. Ibid.
  77. Ibid., 216.
  78. Stephenson, Kepler's Physical Astronomy, 4.
  79. Ernan McMullin, ed., Galileo: Man of Science (New York and London: Basic Books, Inc., 1967), 52.
  80. Ibid., 53.
  81. Ibid., 54.
  82. Ibid., 55.
  83. Ibid., 54.
  84. Stephen W. Hawking, A Brief History of Time (New York, Toronto and London: Bantam Books, 1988), 16.
  85. Ibid., 55.
  86. Ibid., 57.
  87. Ibid., 58.
  88. Johannes Kepler, Kepler's Conversation with Galileo's Sideral Messenger Trans. Edward Rosen (New York and London: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1965), 9.
  89. Ibid., 3.
  90. McMullin, ed., Galileo: Man of Science (New York and London: Basic Books, Inc., 1967), 59.
  91. Ibid., 60.
  92. Ibid., 59.
  93. Ibid., 60.
  94. Allan Ollney, The Private Life of Galileo (London: MacMillian & Co., 1870), 89.
  95. McMullin, ed., Galileo: Man of Science (New York and London: Basic Books, Inc., 1967), 61.
  96. Ibid.
  97. Galileo Galilei, Dialogue on the Two Great World Systems. Ed. Giorgio de Santillana (Chicago, Toronto and London: The University of Chicago, 1955), xviii.
  98. Ibid.
  99. Galileo Galilei, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems-Ptolemaic and Copernican. Trans. Stillman Drake (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967), 6-7.
  100. McMullin, ed., Galileo: Man of Science (New York and London: Basic Books, Inc., 1967), 63.
  101. Ibid.
  102. Jerome J. Langford, Galileo, Science and the Church (New York: Desclee Company, 1966), 153.
  103. Ibid., 157.
  104. McMullin, ed., Galileo: Man of Science, 64.
  105. Bern Dibner and Stillman Drake, A Letter from Galileo (Norwalk: Burndy Library, 1967), 37.
  106. Langford, Galileo, Science and the Church, 158.
  107. Ibid.
  108. Hugh Ross, The Fingerprint of God (Promise Publishing, 1989), 21.
  109. Joseph S. Tenn, The Copernican Revolution; [database on-line] (Rohnert Park, CA: Sonoma State University, 1997, accessed Thursday, December 07, 2000) available from http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/people/faculty/tenn/CopernicanRevolution.html.
  110. Phillip Bricker and R.I.G. Hughes, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science. (Cambridge and London: MIT Press, 1990), 2-3.
  111. Field, The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: Isaac Newton.
  112. Bricker and Hughes, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science, 155.
  113. Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought, 237.
  114. Ibid., 238.
  115. Ibid., 239.
  116. Ibid., 247.
  117. Ibid., 249.
  118. Ibid., 247.
  119. Ibid., 249.
  120. Ibid., 251.
  121. Francois De Gandt, Force and Geometry in Newton's Principia. Trans. Curtis Wilson (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 6.
  122. Bricker and Hughes, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science, 155.
  123. Richard S. Westfall, Force in Newton's Physics (New York: American Elsevier, 1971), 206.
  124. Ibid., 257.
  125. De Gandt, Force and Geometry in Newton's Principia, 7.
  126. Ibid.
  127. Ibid., 8.
  128. Ibid., 15.
  129. Ibid., 55.
  130. Ibid.
  131. Sir Isaac Newton, A Treatise of the System of the World (London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1969), viii.
  132. Ibid., xiii.
  133. Ibid., xv.
  134. Theodore P. Snow, The Dynamic Universe (St. Paul, New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles: West Publishing Company, 1987), 52.
  135. Rob Salgado, Newton, Galileo, and The Laws of Gravitation; [World wide Web Site] (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, 1995) accessed Saturday, December 16, 2000) available from http://physics.hallym.ac.kr/education/syracuse/LIGHTCONE/newton-gr.html
  136. Westfall, Force in Newton's Physics, 1.
  137. Tenn, The Copernican Revolution.
  138. Ibid.
  139. Bricker and Hughes, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science, 215.
  140. Ibid.
  141. Hall, Elizabeth, Psychology Today: An Introduction. 5th Ed. (New York: Random House, 1983), 403.
  142. Bricker and Hughes, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science, 216.
  143. George Abell, Exploration of the Universe. 2nd edition (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969), 608.
  144. Ibid.
  145. Donald Savage, James Hartfield and David Salisbury. Meteorite Yields Evidence of Primitive Life on Early Mars; [World Wide Web site] (Pasadena, CA: California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1996, accessed Sunday, December 10, 2000) available from http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/nasa1.html.
  146. Martin Rees, Before the Beginning: Our Universe and Others. (Reading: Perseus Books, 1997), 247.
  147. Ibid., 3.

 

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