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The chronology will be expanded to track major cross-straits issues and events so check back often.
1945 August, China: The Chinese Civil War resumes with the ending of World War II. In order to head off a Communist takeover of Central China, and ensure Nationalist Chinese compliance of the Japanese terms of surrender, US General Albert C. Wedemeyer, Chiang Kai-shek's chief of staff, requests and receives permission to use United States air and sea forces to transport 500,000 Nationalist troops to safety.
1945 Aug. 14, China: Treaty with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) signed with Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government resulting with joint ownership of the Manchurian Railroad and the sea port of Dairen for 30 years. Port Arthur was designated a Communist Chinese-Soviet naval base and independence was recognized for Outer Mongolia.
1945 Aug. 28, China: The United States of America sponsors negotiations between the Nationalist and the Communist Chinese. US ambassador Patrick J. Hurley escorts Communist Chinese leader Mao Tse-tung to Chungking for the peace conference, which broke down nearly two months later when the Nationalists became aware of a Communist Army advance into southwest Manchuria under the command of Communist Chinese General Lin Piao.
1945 Sept. 30, China: The US 1st Marine Division and other units, eventually totaling almost 53,000 men, landed in eastern Hopei and Shantung, occupying Peiping, Tientsin, as well as the adjoining coastal areas of the provinces.
1945 Nov. 15, China: Nationalist forces, wishing to begin an offensive into Southwest Manchuria via the sea approaches through the Liaotung Peninsula, had their proposal rejected by the occupying Soviet force, present under the terms of surrender of the Japanese. As a result Nationalist forces landed in Chinwangtao in an area held by the US Marines. Attacking across the Great Wall of China, Nationalist forces hit the Communists in an area outside the Soviet occupational zone. The better trained and equipped Nationalist Chinese army succeeded in their objectives and held the area as far as Chinchow by Nov. 26. [Editorial note: Both Nationalist and Communist Chinese leaders saw Manchuria as a key province in gaining eventual control of the China. Chiang Kai-shek believed the Communists would be able to establish themselves in a separate republic if they gained control of the area. Chiang placed control of Manchuria as a more important strategic goal then securing the rear, namely by gaining control of Central China first. In this sense, Chiang placed political objectives above military objectives.]
1945 Nov. 30, China: The new Communist Chinese Fourth Army occupies most of Shantung province, primarily areas not under control of the US Marines.
1945 Dec. 5, China: US ambassador Patrick J. Hurley resigns his appointment on Nov. 26 due to the failure of his efforts to negotiate a peace. He claimed his failure was due to pro- Communist American Foreign Service officers.1945 Dec. 14, China: US General of the Army George C. Marshall goes to China as the personal representative of President Harry S. Truman. He is assigned the task of mediating the dispute between the Communists and the Nationalists.
Latest Update: September 9, 2003