1946 Jan. 14, China: US General George C. Marshall succeeds in convincing the Communist and Nationalist Chinese to agree to a truce, which lasts for nearly six months despite numerous violations. The truce did not apply to Manchuria. 1946 Feb. 25: National Republic General Marshall and other US mediators meet with Nationalist and Communist Chinese representatives and agree to unify the Chinese armed forces into one army with 50 Nationalist and 10 Communist divisions. The agreement collapsed after several weeks.
1946 March 1, Manchuria: Soviet forces begin their withdrawal from Manchuria, dismantling Japanese-built factories and industries and moving them to Siberia. Captured Japanese arms and military equipment were left behind for the Communist forces to seize, enough to outfit the entire army. Meanwhile, Nationalist forces moved into Manchuria from the Southwest along railroads and main roads.
1946 March 10-15, Manchuria: The Battle for Mukden (Shenyang), following the Soviet withdrawal from the city. The Nationalist army wins the battle and continues the move north.
1946 April, Manchuria: Attack and counterattack.
April 14-18, China: First Battle of Ch'angch'un, Communists forces defeat a smaller Nationalist Chinese army of 4,000 troops.
April 16-May 20, China: Second Battle of Szeping, The Nationalist New First Army with 70,000 veterans of the Burma Campaign under Sun Li-jen defeat 110,000 entrenched Communist Chinese troops. Communist forces report they were attacked by American combat aircraft during the conflict. The Nationalist Chinese forces then move towards Ch'angch'un.
April 25-28, Manchuria: Communist Chinese forces seize the Manchurian cities of Harbin and Tsitsishar with no Nationalist opposition. Soviet forces complete their withdrawal of Manchuria.
1946 May 1, China (National Republic): The Nationalist Chinese government is moved from Chungking to Nanking.
1946 May 22, Manchuria: Communist forces withdraw from Ch'angch'un little more than one month after taking control of the area.
1946 June 7-30, Manchuria: General George Marshall brokers a cease-fire between the Nationalists and Communist forces. Negotiations break down soon after and the conflict continues.
1946 June-December, Manchuria: The conflict in Manchuria is stalemated with Communist forces holding a defensive line just south of the city of Harbin. The Nationalist forces, some 200,000 strong, controlled strategic areas in south and central Manchuria, however, this, and offensives in elsewhere in China, spread their forces too thinly. As a result they could not concentrate in sufficient numbers to attack the Communists, who now number 500,000 troops with the addition of recruits from the disbanded Manchukuan army. Despite their numerical advantage, the Communist Chinese forces were unable to mount an offensive of their own.
1946 July-November, China (National Republic): Nationalist Chinese leader, Chiang Kai-shek, orders a major offensive to take North China in response to Communist Chinese violations of the truce established in January. The offensive succeeds in allowing the Nationalists to take Kiangsu, Jehol and most of Hopeh as well as the Tsinan-Tsingtao railway in Shantung. Communist forces respond with minor counterattacks that achieve temporary success in north Shansi and on the Lung-Hai Railway (Sian-Kaifeng-Hsuchow).
1946 July 29, China: The United States stops sending military equipment assistance to both the Nationalist and the Communist Chinese under orders of General George Marshall. Marshall, who did not approve of the recent Nationalist offensive, was also responding to the Communist propaganda concerning US assistance to the Nationalist forces. Chiang Kai-shek continues his offensive in North China, believing that he can achieve his objectives before his supplies are exhausted. Nevertheless, Nationalist moral is severely affected by Marshall's order.
1946 September, China (National Republic): The US Marines begin to withdraw. The Chinese people at large view this measure as the United States abandonment of the National Chinese government.1946 November, China (National Republic): Chiang Kai-shek orders a cease-fire and communicates to General Marshall his desire to continue negotiations. The United States attempts to mediate, but the Communist leaders reject all attempts to broker a deal.
Latest Update: September 9, 2003